J. A. Hanna, H. Singh, and E. G. Virga
We present a unified classical treatment of partially constrained elastic rods. Partial constraints often entail singularities in both shapes and reactions. Our approach encompasses both sleeve and adhesion problems, and provides simple and unambiguous derivations of counterintuitive results in the literature. Relationships between reaction forces and moments, geometry, and adhesion energies follow from the balance of energy during quasistatic motion. We also relate our approach to the configurational balance of material momentum and the concept of a driving traction. The theory is generalizable and can be applied to a wide array of contact, adhesion, gripping, and locomotion problems.